English Setter


English Setter-pets-dogs-dog breeds

The English Setter is a medium-size breed of dog. It is part of the Setter family, which includes the red Irish Setters, Irish Red and White Setters, and black-and-tan Gordon Setters. The mainly white body coat is of medium length with long silky fringes on the back of the legs, under the belly and on the tail. The coat features flecks of colour, and the different colour varieties are referred to as belton.

A gentle but at times strong-willed, mischievous gun dog, bred for a mix of endurance and athleticism, it is used to hunt for game such as quail, pheasant, and grouse. When working, the dog will hunt methodically seeking the airborne scent of its prey. It is sometimes referred to as the Laverack or Llewellin Setter as these were famous strains of the breed during the major development period in the 19th century. Those from hunting stock are generally of a finer build and with less coat than those bred for show exhibition.

Generally reasonably healthy, they have an average life span of 11 to 12 years. The Kennel Club advises UK breeders to screen for hip dysplasia.

Description

Appearance

The English Setter is a medium-sized dog which should have an elegant overall appearance. Its size can range from 24 inches (61 cm) for females up to 27 inches (69 cm) for males. The field or hunting type can be finer in build and construction than those from bench or show lines.The breed was designed to hunt game such as quail, pheasant, and grouse so should be able to cover a lot of ground when seeking the airborne scent of the birds, carrying its head high. The head should be slightly domed with a muzzle of good depth and show chiselling under the eyes, which should be dark in colour with a kind, gentle expression. The top of the ears (sometimes the ears are referred to as "leathers") are positioned in line with the eyes and lie in an elegant fold. It has a long muscular neck, well angled shoulders and a brisket of good depth. The body is of a moderate length proportionate to its height and it has strong powerful hindquarters. It carries its tail in line with its back and the tail should be long enough to reach the hock.

The main body coat is short to medium length, lies flat and has a silky texture. Long silky coat – usually called "feathering", forms fringes on the outside of the ears, neck, chest, down the back of the front legs, under the belly and on the back legs. The tail is also feathered with long coat. The body coat and feathering should be straight and flat but not profuse and never curly although a slight wave can be seen.

The bench or show type has a long, flowing coat that requires regular grooming. The field or hunting type has a shorter coat that requires less grooming.

The base colour of the coat is white with differing coloured ticking also called flecks or speckling. The various speckled coat colours when occurring in English Setters are referred to as belton; valid combinations are white with black (blue belton), white with orange flecks (orange belton), white with orange flecks and lighter nose (lemon belton), white with liver flecks (liver belton), or "tricolour" which is blue or liver belton with tan markings on the face, chest, and legs. The flecking should not form large patches on the body and the flecks should be distributed all over the body. The use of the word "belton" was first coined by Laverack, who developed the breed in the 19th-century, to describe his ideal for flecking and is also the name of a village in the extreme north of England. Puppies' coats may not have all the markings that they have as adults.

Temperament

This breed's standard temperament is best described as a "Gentleman by Nature". However, it can also be strong-willed and mischievous, especially if coming from working/field breeding lines.English Setters are energetic, people-oriented dogs, that are well suited to families who can give them attention and activity,or to working with a hunter, where they have a job to do. They are active dogs that need plenty of exercise and up to two hours a day of exercise is recommended.Inside they tend to be lower energy and love to be couch potatoes and lap dogs; the breed is described as "intensely friendly," "good natured," and "adores visitors and is particularly happy with children."

They rank 37th in Stanley Coren's The Intelligence of Dogs, being of above average working/obedience intelligence. English Setters are very intelligent and can be trained to perform about any task another breed can do, with the exception of herding. However, they are not always easy to train, as their natural bird instinct tends to distract them in outdoor environments.Their temperament is considered to be gentle and as English Setters can be very sensitive to criticism, positive reinforcement training methods using treats and praise work best when undertaking basic training.

Health

Dogs, both pedigree and cross breeds, can be affected with genetic problems. Those known to sometimes occur in English Setters can include congenital deafness, which was reported as affecting 12.4 percent of the 701 English Setters tested by the Louisiana State University in 2010. As at 2013, there has not been any detailed research on this condition undertaken in the UK; autoimmune thyroiditis, which was shown to affect 26.2 percent of 747 English Setters examined between January 1974 until December 2012 in an Orthopedic Foundation for Animals listing; canine hypothyroidism; elbow dysplasia; and allergies, which can include some sensitivity to certain food ingredients and also skin conditions, are known to occur.

In 2004, the UK Kennel Club established the Accredited Breeders Scheme, which was later called the Assured Breeders Scheme (ABS). The scheme received UKAS accreditation in April 2013. ABS members are required to adhere to additional criteria than those necessary for basic KC registration. Among the extra requirements is "Ensuring that the parents of each litter are readily identifiable by either Microchip, Tattoo or DNA profile." As at March 2013, breeders of English Setters who are members of the ABS must screen for hip dysplasia.

Some members of the breed may be affected by cancer and this was identified as the most common cause of death of English Setters in a survey undertaken by the Kennel Club; the age of death from this disease was mainly after reaching ten years of age. However, the survey had only received a small response rate.Life expectancy is between 11 and 12 years, though 13 to 15 years is not uncommon.

Function

Setters hunt by ranging over large distances in a systematic, methodical manner, silently seeking game by scent. When prey is found by scenting the air, the dog will freeze rather than give chase. The dog will stop in a sort of crouch or "set" by freezing in a standing position upon finding their quarry and this distinctive stance is how the term “setter” evolved. Once the dog has indicated where the birds are by freezing on point, on command it would then slowly creep forward to disturb the birds into flight. Once the birds were in flight the hunter who had been following the dog would release hawks to capture the birds in the air. When netting superseded the use of hawks, setting dogs would still be used to indicate the whereabouts of the birds but the hunter would come up behind the dog and throw a net over the birds. In the mid-1600s, guns became more readily available and shooting game birds became a popular pastime of the landed gentry. The basic work of setters was still to find and point to the location of game birds but it also had to be steady to shot.

The scent of game birds is airborne so to pick up this scent the setter carries its head well up and should never follow foot scent. Most setters are born with a natural proclivity to hunting. Dogs that show excitement and interest in birds are described as being "birdy", and trainers look for puppies that show this particular trait. Training is usually done with quail as a first choice or domesticated pigeons.

Writing in 1876, Arnold Burges described the "pure-blooded English Setter" as "the best animal for American upland shooting" in his book The American Kennel and Sporting Field.

English Mastiff


English Mastiff-pets-dogs-dog breeds

The English Mastiff is a breed of extremely large dog (often known simply as the Mastiff) perhaps descended from the ancient Alaunt and Pugnaces Britanniae, with a significant input from the Alpine Mastiff in the 19th century. Distinguished by its enormous size, massive head, short coat in a limited range of colours, but always displaying a black mask, the Mastiff is noted for its gentle and loving nature. The lineage of modern dogs can be traced back to the early 19th century, but the modern type was stabilised in the 1880s and refined since. Following a period of sharp decline, the Mastiff has increased its worldwide popularity. Throughout its history, the Mastiff has contributed to the development of a number of dog breeds, some generally known as Mastiff-type dogs, or, confusingly, just as "Mastiffs".

Appearance

With a massive body, broad skull and head of generally square appearance, it is the largest dog breed in terms of mass. It is on average slightly heavier than the Saint Bernard, although there is a considerable mass overlap between these two breeds. Though the Irish Wolfhound and Great Dane can be more than six inches taller, they are not nearly as robust.

The body is large with great depth and breadth, especially between the forelegs, causing these to be set wide apart. The length of the body taken from the point of the shoulder to the point of the buttock is greater than the height at the withers. The AKC standard height (per their website) for this breed is 30 inches (76 cm) at the shoulder for males and 27.5 inches (70 cm) (minimum) at the shoulder for females. A typical male can weigh 150–250 pounds (68–113 kg), a typical female can weigh 120–200 pounds (54–91 kg), with very large individuals reaching 130 kg (286 lb) or more.

Coat colour standards

The former standard specified the coat should be short and close-lying. Long haired Mastiffs, called "Fluffies", are occasionally seen, due to a recessive gene, but this trait is not accepted by any kennel club. The colour is apricot-fawn, silver-fawn, fawn, or dark fawn-brindle, always with black on the muzzle, ears, and nose and around the eyes.

The Mastiff has a distinctive head with dewlap and flews. The black mask is visible even on this brindle.

The colours of the Mastiff coat are differently described by various kennel clubs, but are essentially fawn or apricot, or those colours as a base for black brindle. A black mask should occur in all cases. The fawn is generally a light "silver" shade, but may range up to a golden yellow. The apricot may be a slightly reddish hue up to a deep, rich red. The brindle markings should ideally be heavy, even and clear stripes, but may actually be light, uneven, patchy, faint or muddled. Pied Mastiffs occur rarely. Other non-standard colours include black, blue brindle, and chocolate (brown) mask. Some Mastiffs have a heavy shading caused by dark hairs throughout the coat or primarily on the back and shoulders. This is not generally considered a fault. Brindle is dominant over solid colour. Apricot is dominant over fawn, though that dominance may be incomplete. Most of the colour faults are recessive, though black is so rare in the Mastiff that it has never been determined whether the allele is recessive or a mutation that is dominant.

The genetic basis for the variability of coat in dogs has been much studied, but all the issues have not yet been resolved. On the basis of what is known (and remembering that, as dogs are diploid animals, each gene location (locus) appears twice in every animal, so questions of dominance also must be resolved), the gene possibilities allowed by the Mastiff standard are AyBDEmh(kbr_or_ky)mS. This describes a dog which is fawn with a dark nose, non-dilute, black-masked, non-harlequin, brindled or not brindled, non-merle, and non-spotted. To allow for the rare exceptions we must include "b" (brown mask and possible brown brindling), "d" (blue mask and possible blue brindling), "sp" (pied spotting), and perhaps "a" (recessive black). The possible combination of homozygous brown and homozygous blue is a pale brown referred to as isabella in breeds where it is relatively common. On a Mastiff, this would appear on mask, ears, and any brindling that was present. Speculative gene locations may also exist, so a Mastiff may be "I" (apricot) or "i" (non-apricot) and perhaps "cch" (silver lightening) or "C" (without silver lightening). (Note that this "C locus" may not be the same as the one identified in other animals, SLC45A2.)

Record size

The greatest weight ever recorded for a dog, 343 pounds (155.6 kg), was that of an English Mastiff from England named Aicama Zorba of La Susa, although claims of larger dogs, including Saint Bernards, Tibetan Mastiffs, and Caucasian ovcharkas exist. According to the 1989 edition of the Guinness Book of Records, in March 1989, when he was 7 years old, Zorba stood 37 inches (94 cm) at the shoulder and was 8 ft 3 in (251 cm) from the tip of his nose to the tip of his tail, about the size of a small donkey. After 2000, the Guinness Book of World Records stopped accepting largest or heaviest pet records.

Temperament

The Mastiff breed has a desired temperament, which is reflected in all formal standards and historical descriptions. Sydenham Edwards, wrote in 1800 in the Cynographia Britannica:

What the Lion is to the Cat the Mastiff is to the Dog, the noblest of the family; he stands alone, and all others sink before him. His courage does not exceed his temper and generosity, and in attachment he equals the kindest of his race. His docility is perfect; the teazing of the smaller kinds will hardly provoke him to resent, and I have seen him down with his paw the Terrier or cur that has bit him, without offering further injury. In a family he will permit the children to play with him, and suffer all their little pranks without offence. The blind ferocity of the Bull Dog will often wound the hand of the master who assists him to combat, but the Mastiff distinguishes perfectly, enters the field with temper, and engages in the attack as if confident of success: if he overpowers, or is beaten, his master may take him immediately in his arms and fear nothing. This ancient and faithful domestic, the pride of our island, uniting the useful, the brave and the docile, though sought by foreign nations and perpetuated on the continent, is nearly extinct where he probably was an aborigine, or is bastardized by numberless crosses, everyone of which degenerate from the invaluable character of the parent, who was deemed worthy to enter the Roman amphitheatre, and, in the presence of the masters of the worlds, encounter the pard, and assail even the lord of the savage tribes, whose courage was sublimed by torrid suns, and found none gallant enough to oppose him on the deserts of Zaara or the plains of Numidia.

The American Kennel Club sums up the Mastiff breed as:

a combination of grandeur and good nature as well as courage and docility. Domesticated Mastiffs are powerful yet gentle and loyal dogs, but due to their physical size and need for space, are best suited for country or suburban life.

Health

The Mastiff should at all stages of development show the breed characteristics of massiveness and sound, if cumbersome, movement. The Mastiff is a particularly large dog demanding correct diet and exercise. Excessive running is not recommended for the first two years of the dog's life, in order not to damage the growth plates in the joints of this heavy and fast-growing dog, which in some weeks may gain over 5 lb. However, regular exercise must be maintained throughout the dog's life to discourage slothful behaviour and to prevent a number of health problems. A soft surface is recommended for the dog to sleep on to prevent the development of calluses, arthritis, and hygroma (an acute inflammatory swelling). Due to the breed's large size, puppies may potentially be smothered or crushed by the mother during nursing. A whelping box, along with careful monitoring can prevent such accidents. The average lifespan of the Mastiff is about 7 years although it's not uncommon for some to live to 10–11 years.

Major problems can include hip dysplasia and gastric torsion. Minor problems include obesity, osteosarcoma, and cystinuria. Problems only occasionally found include cardiomyopathy, allergies, vaginal hyperplasia, cruciate ligament rupture, hypothyroidism, OCD, entropion, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), and persistent pupillary membranes (PPM).

When purchasing a purebred Mastiff, experts often suggest that the dog undergo tests for hip dysplasia, elbow dysplasia, thyroid, and DNA for PRA.

A Mastiff may be kept in an apartment, but care must be taken to give it enough exercise. Mastiffs should be fed 2 or 3 times a day; it is believed that one large meal per day can increase the chance of gastric torsion.

English Foxhound


English Foxhound-pets-dogs

The English Foxhound is one of the four foxhound breeds of dog. It is a cousin of the American Foxhound. They are scent hounds, bred to hunt foxes by scent.

Description

Appearance

The breed standards' guidelines for showing English Foxhounds requires them to be 21–25 inches (53–64 cm) tall at the withers. The skull is wide and the muzzle is long. The legs are muscular, straight-boned, and the paws are rounded, almost cat-like. The English Foxhound comes in any hound color, most often tricolor, tan, red, or black with a white base.

Temperament

The English Foxhound is a pack hound, therefore, it gets along well with other dogs and enjoys human companionship. It gets along with horses, children, and other pets, as it is a gentle, social, and tolerant breed. It is an active breed that enjoys tracking foxes and has the stamina to run all day with few breaks.

Health and lifespan

There are very few health problems in this breed. Occasionally seen are chronic hip dysplasia, renal disease, and epilepsy. The breed's lifespan is typically 10–13 years.

English Cocker Spaniel


English Cocker Spaniel-pets-dog breeds-pet-dogs

The English Cocker Spaniel is a breed of gun dog. The English Cocker Spaniel is an active, good-natured, sporting dog standing well up at the withers and compactly built. There are "field" or "working" cockers and "show" cockers. It is one of several varieties of spaniel and somewhat resembles its American cousin, the American Cocker Spaniel, although it is closer to the working-dog form of the Field Spaniel and the English Springer Spaniel.

Outside the US, the breed is usually known simply as the Cocker Spaniel, as is the American Cocker Spaniel within the US. The word cocker is commonly held to stem from their use to hunt woodcock.
The American Cocker Spaniel was developed from the English Cocker Spaniel in the 19th century to retrieve quail and woodcock. They were originally divided from the English Cocker solely on a size basis, but were bred over the years for different specific traits. The two Cocker Spaniels were shown together in America until 1936, when the English Cocker received status as a separate breed. The American Kennel Club granted a separate breed designation for the English Cocker Spaniel in 1946. The American breed has a shorter snout, is more likely to get ear infections, and is groomed differently from the English Cocker.

Description

The English Cocker Spaniel is a sturdy, compact, well-balanced dog. It has a characteristic expression showing intelligence and alertness. Its eyes should be dark and its lobular ears should reach "a bit past" the tip of the nose when pulled forward. Today, a significant difference in appearance exists between field-bred and conformation show-bred dogs. The Cocker's tail is customarily docked in North America. In countries where docking is legal, the tail is generally docked at about 4–5 inches (10–13 cm) in field-bred dogs while show dogs are generally docked closer to the body. Docking is now illegal in Australia and South Africa. In England and Wales, docking can only be carried out on dogs where the owners have proved that the dogs will be used as working or shooting dogs.

The breed standard indicates that the males of the breed are on average between 15.5 and 16 inches (39 and 41 cm) at the withers with the females a little smaller, growing to between 15 and 15.5 inches (38 and 39 cm). Both males and females of the breed weigh approximately 13–14.5 kilograms (29–32 lb). American Cocker Spaniels are smaller, with the males being on average between 14.25 and 15.5 inches (36.2 and 39.4 cm), and females again being smaller on average at between 13.5 and 14.5 inches (34 and 37 cm), both weighing approximately 11–13 kilograms (24–29 lb). The closely related English Springer Spaniels are larger than either types of cockers, growing to between 19 and 19.75 inches (48.3 and 50.2 cm) for the females, and 19.25 and 20 inches (48.9 and 50.8 cm) for the males, and weighing between 23 and 25 kilograms (51 and 55 lb).

The English Cocker Spaniel is similar to the English Springer Spaniel and at first glance the only major difference is the larger size of the Springer. However English Cockers also tend to have longer, and lower-set ears than English Springers. In addition Springers also tend to have a longer muzzle, their eyes are not as prominent and the coat is less abundant.

Colour

Breed standards restrict dogs to certain colours for the purposes of conformation showing (dependent on country), whereas working Cockers can be any of a wide variety of colours. For instance, the breed standard of the United Kingdom's Kennel Club states that in solid colours, no white is allowed except for on the chest.

They come in solid (or "self"), particoloured, and roan types of markings. Roan is similar to merle, but consists of solid patches and white patches speckled or "ticked" with the same colour as the solid patches.

The colours themselves in the breed consist of black, liver with brown pigmentation, red with black or brown pigmentation, golden with black or brown pigmentation, sable, silver, ash, black and tan, liver and tan, blue roan, liver roan, orange roan with black or brown pigmentation, lemon roan with black or brown pigmentation, black and white ticked, liver and white ticked, orange and white ticked with black or brown pigmentation, lemon and white ticked with black or brown pigmentation, black and white, liver and white with brown pigmentation, orange and white with black or brown pigmentation, lemon and white with black or brown pigmentation.

Of the solid colours, sable is considered rare, and is classified by some countries as being a type of particolour on account of its mixed hair shafts. White is black/brown pigmentation is also considered rare, and is also usually classified as a particolour too. In addition a silver/ash colour, usually associated with the Weimaraner breed of dog, is considered genetically possible but is yet to be recorded by the United Kingdom's Kennel Club. Of the roan varieties, lemon roan with a light brown pigmentation is the most recessive of all the roans. Plain white Cockers are rarely born, and are thought to be more prone to deafness than those with more pigmentation. As such they are generally not encouraged in the breed.

Temperament

Cockers are compassionate, determined, kind, intelligent, athletic, alert and resilient and make great family pets. The breed does not like being alone, and will bond strongly to an individual person in a family, usually the one who feeds it. Known for optimism, intelligence and adaptability, the breed is extremely loyal and affectionate. The English Cocker Spaniel has a cheerful nature. They rank 18th in Stanley Coren's The Intelligence of Dogs, being of excellent working/obedience intelligence. Due to the breed's happy disposition and continuously wagging tail, it has been given the nickname "merry cocker". They can also be dominant but loyal to their companion.

With a good level of socialisation at an early age, Cocker Spaniels can get along well with people, children, other dogs and other pets. This breed seems to have a perpetually wagging tail and prefers to be around people; it is not best suited to the backyard alone. Cockers can be easily stressed by loud noises and by rough treatment or handling. When trained with a soft hand and with lots of rewards, the Cocker Spaniel will be an obedient and loving companion with a happy, cheerful nature.

Health

English Cocker Spaniels in UK and USA/Canada have an average lifespan of 11 to 12 years, which is a typical longevity for purebred dogs, but a little less than most other breeds of their size. The English Cocker Spaniel typically lives about a year longer than the smaller American Cocker Spaniel.

In a 2004 UK Kennel Club survey, the most common causes of death were cancer (30%), old age (17%), cardiac (9%), and "combinations" (7%).

In 1998 and 2002 USA/Canada Health Surveys, the leading causes of death were old age (40%) and cancer (22%).

Common health issues with English Cockers are bite problems, skin allergies, shyness, cataracts, deafness (affecting 6.3% of the dogs of this breed), aggression towards other dogs, and benign tumours.
Some uncommon health issues that can also have an effect on English Cocker Spaniels include canine hip dysplasia, patellar lunation, canine dilated cardiomyopathy, and heart murmurs. Hip dysplasia is an abnormal formation of the hip joint which is the most common cause of canine arthritis in the hips. Patellar Lunation, also known as luxating patella, refers to the dislocation of the kneecap. Canine dilated cardiomyopathy is an adult onset condition which occurs when the heart muscle is weak and does not contract properly. It can lead to congestive heart failure, which is where fluid accumulates in the lungs, chest, abdominal cavities, or under the skin. Dilated cardiomyopathy is often accompanied by abnormal heart rhythms, or arrhythmias which can complicate treatment.

Rage Syndrome

Rage syndrome is most often associated with the Show Cocker Spaniel breed, although cases have been found in other breeds and cases are relatively rare even within the Cocker Spaniel breed. Rage Syndrome is described as when a dog attacks suddenly and often savagely, without any warning and during the attack the dog often has a glazed look and appears to be unaware of its surroundings. Rage Syndrome can affect any and all breeds. Though not a common ailment, studies have found it is more common in solid coloured Cockers than in particolours and also more common in darker coloured Cockers than lighter coloured Cockers, being most common in solid gold and black coloured spaniels. Their health issues are typical for a purebred dog breed; however they are closely associated with rage syndrome even though cases are really quite rare. Rage syndrome cannot be accurately predicted and can only be diagnosed by EEG or genetic testing and these tests are not conclusive. A link between coat colour and temperament has been proposed. This link could be the colour pigment melanin, which is biochemically similar to chemicals that act as transmitters in the brain. A study made by the University of Cambridge involving over 1,000 Cocker Spaniel households throughout Britain concluded that solid colour Cockers were more likely to be aggressive in 12 out of 13 situations. Red/golden Cockers were shown to be the most aggressive of all, in situations involving strangers, family members, while being disciplined, and sometimes for no apparent reason.[34][35] A study by Spanish researchers at the Autonomous University of Barcelona revealed a similar link between golden Cockers and aggression. Males were also more likely to be aggressive. The study found the English Cocker Spaniel to have the highest level of owner- and stranger- directed aggression compared to other breeds.

Working Cockers

This breed, like many others with origins as working dogs, has some genetic lines that focus on working-dog skills and other lines that focus on ensuring that the dog's appearance conforms to a breed standard; these are referred to as the "working" (or "field-bred") and "conformation" strains, respectively. After World War II, Cocker Spaniels bred for pets and for the sport of conformation showing increased enormously in popular appeal, and, for a while, was the most numerous Kennel Club registered breed. This popularity increased the view that all Cockers were useless as working dogs. However, for most dogs this is untrue, as even some show-bred Cockers have retained their working instinct.

Today, this breed is experiencing a resurgence in usage as a working and hunting dog. Dogs from working lines are noticeably distinct in appearance. As is the case with the English Springer Spaniel, the working type has been bred exclusively to perform in the field as a hunting companion. Their coat is shorter and ears less pendulous than the show-bred type. Although registered as the same breed, the two strains have diverged significantly enough that they are rarely crossed. The dogs that have dominated the hunt test, field trial and hunting scene in the United States are field-bred dogs from recently imported English lines. Working-dog lines often have physical characteristics that would prevent them from winning in the show ring. This is a result of selecting for different traits than those selected by show breeders. The longer coat and ears, selected for the show ring, are an impediment in the field. Cuban authorities train and use English Cocker Spaniels as sniffer dogs to check for drugs or food products in passengers' baggage at Cuban airports.

Skills

·         A field-bred cocker spaniel is first and foremost an upland flushing dog. In performing this task there are some skills the dog must be trained to perform.

·         Hup This is the traditional command to sit and stay. To be an effective hunter the dog must comply with this command absolutely. When hupped the dog can be given direction called to the handler. The ability to hup a dog actively working a running bird allow the handler and any gunners to keep up without having to run.

·         Retrieve to Hand The majority of hunters and all hunt test or field trial judges require that a dog deliver a bird to hand, meaning that a dog will hold the bird until told to give it to the hunter directly.
·         Quarter Dogs must work in a pattern in front of the hunter seeking upland game birds. The dog must be taught to stay within gun range to avoid flushing a bird outside of shooting distance.

·         Follow Hand Signals Upland hunting involves pursuing wild game in its native habitat. Gun dogs must investigate likely covers for upland game birds. The dog must be responsive to hand signals in order for the hunter to be able to direct the dog into areas of particular interest.

·         Steady When hunting upland birds, a flushing dog should be steady to wing and shot, meaning that he sits when a bird rises or a gun is fired. He does this in order to mark the fall and to avoid flushing other birds when pursuing a missed bird.


Elo (dog)


Elo (dog)-pets-dog breeds-dogs-pet

The Elo is an emerging breed of dog, with development beginning in 1987 in Germany. The breed name is trademarked and development has been closely supervised by the Elo Breeding and Research Association. The Elo is notable in that it is primarily selected and bred according to behavioral characteristics and social behavior, with the goal of creating the best family pet.

Appearance

Bred to a behavioral rather than an appearance standard, the appearance of the Elo can vary from dog to dog, although the breed standard (breed standards describe a breed's external appearance) describes the size as 46–60 cm at the withers, and weighing 22.7–38 kg, with a body that is slightly longer than tall, and a well plumed tail (meaning with lots of long fur) often carried in a curve over the back. The prick ears are furry, wide set, and slightly rounded at the ends. The coat comes in a long (Rauhaar) and medium (Glatthaar) length, both with a dense undercoat, with all colours allowed, with a white with brown, red, black, or gray spots particularly desired.

Health

As with all created breeds, the Elo's small population size results in the risk of inbreeding and its after-effects of inbreeding depression, and frequent occurrence of hereditary diseases. There is a susceptibility to Distichia, in which corneal damage can occur. Part of the process of accepting a dog for breeding is an eye examination (for prevention of Distichia) and X-rays to avoid breeding dogs with hip dysplasia.

A genetic study has been done in Germany using the Elo, calculating the proportion of genes of the different founder breeds, of the inbreeding coefficient and relationship coefficients, and the percentage of stillborn puppies in litters. The study also found that all but 3.5% of the Elo were related to each other. The significant gene percentages of the Elo are 48% Eurasier, 23% Old English Sheepdog, 10% Chow chow. The inbreeding coefficient was found to be 12.04%.

East-European Shepherd


East-European Shepherd-pets-dog breeds-pet-dogs

The East European Shepherd  is a breed of dog that was developed in the 1930-1950s based on German Shepherd Dogs to create a larger cold-resistant breed for military use, police work and border guard duties in the Soviet Union. VEOs are also used as guide dogs for the blind and there are VEO therapy dogs. This breed is popular in Russia where it entered a public culture and acquired a legendary status as an extremely smart and loyal dog devoted to their owners. The breed is well known in other ex-Soviet Union republics. In the West, the East-European Shepherd is a rare breed that is not well known: information about the breed on online sources, in English, is limited and often incorrect or distorted.

Appearance

The East European Shepherd is larger than a German Shepherd: males are 66-76 centimetres (26–30 inches) at the withers and weight 35–50 kg, females are 62-72 centimetres (24.5–28 inches) and weight 30–50 kg. Along with a short coat of dense fur, they have strong (but not coarse) bones and well-developed muscles. Their coat is medium in length with a well-developed undercoat. The standard colors for these dogs include saddled (that can be saturated to give an almost black-and-tan or black-and-red appearance) with a black face mask and solid black. Well defined sable gray and sable red are acceptable colors.

The head of an East European Shepherd is of a 'wolfish' appearance, resting on a long neck in rather massive collar fur; it is proportional to the rest of the body. It is triangular and wedge-shaped with a slightly rounded forehead. The muzzle is equal in length to the skull, and the lower jaw is well developed. With large teeth in full complex and powerful jaw muscles, the dog is capable of a very strong hold and scissor-cutting bite . Their ears are medium in size and pricked. Their eyes are medium, oval, and dark, with close-fitting, well-colored eyelids.

Their backs are straight, strong, wide, and long. They are 10-17% longer than their height at withers. The loins are long and wide, well-muscled and slightly arched. Their croup is wide, long, and slightly sloping towards the tail. The tail is long, bears thick fir, erected in a form of a sword when the dog's excited. The chest is moderately wide, while the belly is reasonably tucked up. The chests are scimitar in form, reaching the hocks or slightly longer in some cases. The legs are strong and straight; feet are oval and compact. The dog's pace is of a trotter, rather than of a skid, sliding just above the ground so typical to other German Shepherds' cousins.

Temperament

The East European Shepherd is balanced, confident and intelligent. VEO is an attentive, active, self-assured dog that appears calm and quiet but constantly monitors situation and is ready to "turn on" on owner's command. The East European Shepherd has an active defensive reaction, distrusts strangers and can be aggressive when needed but under no circumstances it should be inclined to unmotivated aggression. VEOs excel as K9 and personal protection guard dogs or as companions.

East European Shepherds are working dogs and need a regular exercise. They were bred for their intelligence and they are curious and quick learners. Their ability to withstand extreme climates allows them to live outside, as well as inside, in a house or an apartment. They perform well as hunting dogs and can work as draught dogs in a group of the same.

Health

One of the main reason for development of VEO was to get rid of hip dysplasia and elbow dysplasia, a common disease in German Shepherds. Due to the large and open nature of their ears, East European Shepherds are not prone to ear infections. They live 10–14 years.

Origin

The breed was created in 1930-1950s as a working dog adapted for service in the Army and police as guard dogs and sniffer dogs in various climatic conditions. It was the result of crossbreeding German Shepherds with Russian dog breeds, such as the Caucasian Shepherd Dog and the Central Asian Shepherd Dog. Modern East European Shepherd DNA bears both traces of East Siberian Laika dogs and some lines of German Shepherds that had been inherited by the Russian Army from territory in Germany at the end of World War II.

The first standard which has formed the breed type of the East European Shepherd was approved in 1964 by the Cynological Council of the Ministry of Agriculture of the USSR.

East Siberian Laika


East Siberian Laika-pets-dog breeds-dogs-pet

The East Siberian Laika (Vostotchno-Sibirskaia Laika) is a Russian breed of dog of spitz type, a hunting dog originating in parts of Siberia east of the Yenisei River.

Description

Appearance

Males are 55 to 66 centimetres (22 to 26 in), while females are on the smaller side at 51 to 60 centimetres (20 to 24 in). Black and tan, with light patches (called karamis), grizzle, patched, ticked, white, grey, black, red and brown of all shades. There are two major types, the Evenki and the Irkutsk; other less important types are the Yakutia, Amur and Tofolar. These types vary in color and physique, as the ESL is still more of a diverse conglomerate breed than the other three Russian Laika breeds. Physically the ESL is somewhat rangy, nearly square in proportion, slightly higher at the withers than at the croup, robust in bone; head shape varies with the regional varieties. Ears are erect and triangular, the tail carried in a curve over the back. The coat is a medium long double coat with straight coarse guard hair and a soft thick undercoat.

Purpose

The ESL is a natural hunting dog used for a wide variety of small and large game, ranging from squirrels, marten, sable, and grouse to moose, bear, wild boar and mountain lions. They can also be used as sled dogs.

Temperament

Highly aggressive towards large predators, they are calm and well-tempered with people, although they can be good watchdogs and if encouraged will be protective against human intruders. Generally, they seem to be good companion dogs and can also be trained in obedience.

Dutch Smoushond


Dutch Smoushond-pets-dog breeds-dogs-pet

The Dutch Smoushond (Hollandse Smoushond, Dutch Ratter) is a small breed of dog, descended from a type of terrier-like dog kept in stables to eliminate rats and mice in Germany and the Netherlands. They are considered to be related to the Schnauzer. It is very rare and not well-known outside the Netherlands, its country of origin.

Appearance

The Dutch Smoushond is small in size, at the maximum 10 kg in weight and 43 cm at the withers. Its waterproof coat is rough and shaggy, and of any shade of yellow colour. The characteristic shape of the head is broad and short, with drop ears set high on the head.

History

The Hollandse Smoushond Club (Smoushondenclub) was formed in 1905 to document and register the small stable dog as a purebred breed, as it was in danger of dying out. Its origins may have been with the ancestor of the Schnauzer breed, as an incorrect yellow colour. The name refers to its shaggy fur and face, as Jewish men (called Smouzen in the 1800s) had beards and long hair. They were called "Dutch" to prevent confusion with the similar Brussels Griffons. During World War II, the breed nearly disappeared. In 1973, several breeders began to reconstruct the breed with the few remaining dogs, most of whom had been crossbred with other breeds. Much of the reconstruction was accomplished with the use of Border Terrier crosses. There is illustrated reference to the breed in Dutch artist Rien Poortvliet's popular 1996 book, "Dogs."

Recognition

Although popular in the Netherlands, the breed is not well known elsewhere in the world. It was recognised in 2001 by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale and placed in Group 2, Section 1, Pinscher and Schnauzer. Of the major kennel clubs in the English-speaking world, it is recognised only by the United Kennel Club in the United States (in its Terrier Group.) It also may be found listed by some of the vast number of internet based minor registries and dog registry businesses as a "rare breed".

Dutch Shepherd


Dutch Shepherd-pets-dog breeds-dogs

The Dutch Shepherd is a herding dog of Dutch origin. They were used by shepherds and farmers who needed a versatile dog, with few demands, and a dog that was able to adapt to a harsh and meager existence.

Description

Appearance

The Dutch Shepherd on average weigh between 50–70 pounds (23–32 kg) and the height varies between 55–63 cm (approximately 22 to 25 inches tall at the withers). Depending on the coat the breed can be distinguished as short-hair, long-hair, or rough-hair.

Short-hair: All over the body, quite hard, close-fitting, with woolly undercoat. Ruff, breeches and tail plume are clearly visible.

Long-hair: All over the body, long, straight, well fitting, harsh to the touch, without curls or waves and with a woolly undercoat. Distinct ruff and breeches. Tail abundantly coated. Head, ears and feet and also the hind legs below the hocks are short and densely coated. The backsides of the forelegs show a strongly developed coat, shortening in length towards the feet, the so-called feathering. No fringes at the ears.

Rough-hair: Dense, harsh tousled coat and a woolly, dense undercoat all over the body except for the head. Upper- and lower lip should be well-covered with hair, the whiskers and beard, and two well defined, coarse rough eyebrows that are distinct but not exaggerated. Furnishings are not soft. The hair on the skull and on the cheeks is less strongly developed. In profile it seems as if the head has a more square appearance. Strongly developed breeches are desirable. Tail is covered all round with hair. The brindle colour may be less pronounced because of the tousled coat.

Colour
Brindle. The basic colour is golden or silver, and can vary from a near white light sand-coloured to chestnut red. A "true silver brindle" is very rare, because having too much white is considered a fault. The brindle is clearly present all over the body, in the ruff, breeches and tail. Too much black is undesirable. A black mask is preferable. Heavy white markings on chest or feet is not desirable.

Temperament

Dutch Shepherds are loyal, reliable, alert, watchful, active, independent, intelligent, and intuitive.

Obedience and discipline can be achieved with remarkable results. Gifted with a true shepherding temperament, they can supposedly work willingly together with their owners and can deal independently with any task they are assigned, being neither aggressive nor shy. They have a strong character and independence passed down from their herding ancestry.

Health

The Dutch Breed Club initiated a hotline in 2008 for reporting health and behavioral problems. Most genetic health problems occur at a low rate in this breed. Confirmed genetic diseases diagnosed in Dutch Shepherd Dogs include allergies (atopy), masticatory myositis, pannus, cryptorchidism, and inflammatory bowel disease.

Within the rough-hair population care should be taken to screen for goniodysplasia before breeding. This is a condition where the outflow of fluid from the eye is restricted and under certain circumstances can cause blindness. The link between genetics and goniodysplasia is uncertain. Two dogs who have a risk of goniodysplasia can still have puppies who are not at risk. The Dutch Breed Club regulations requires the testing for GD for rough-hairs.

The Orthopedic Foundation for Animals reports hip dysplasia is present at an overall rate of 8.5 percent on 389 dogs evaluated from Jan 1972 through Dec 2017 (while also reflecting a lower 7.2 percent on dogs born between 2011-2015)  and elbow dysplasia is present at a rate of 4.1 percent on 291 dogs evaluated from Jan 1972 through Dec 2017.

A previously unknown inflammatory and necrotizing myopathy affecting Dutch Shepherd dogs was genetically mapped in 2018 by the University of Minnesota Canine Genetics Laboratory who identifies this disease as IM: Inflammatory Myopathy (Myositis). The disease causes progressive, painful inflammation of skeletal muscle tissue. The first symptoms of the disease, which usually present between three and eight months of age, include a “bunny hopping” gait and rear leg stiffness, then, escalate to include muscle tremors, progressive weakness, and severe muscle atrophy. The Dutch Shepherd Dog Club of America financed genetic research to analyze and interpret molecular information to identify this disease, which was spearheaded by Dutch Shepherd Dog Club of America veterinary counsel Karen Wroblewski DVM.

Dr. Wroblewski orchestrated a nationwide collaboration of veterinary professionals, breeders and Dutch Shepherd fanciers resulting in the description of this new condition, discovery of the causative mutated gene, definition of the mode of inheritance (autosomal recessive), and now, availability of a new DNA screening test available through University of Minnesota. The UMN College of Veterinary Medicine has updated their Canine Genetic Testing webpage to include submission forms and instructions for submitting samples for Dutch Shepherd Inflammatory Myopathy testing to identify carriers of the disease. Both parents must be carriers to produce affected offspring, but as long as one of the two parents is IM clear, affected offspring will NOT be produced. The University of Minnesota Canine Genetics Laboratory has also coordinated with the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals to have the IM test results listed on the OFA website.

Grooming

The short-haired variety needs occasional combing, with the exception during the shedding period in the spring and fall when a daily thorough brushing is needed. The long-haired variety needs to be groomed about once a week, or more frequently depending on work and environment. The rough-hair variety needs to be thoroughly brushed once a week, and twice a year the dead hair will need to be hand stripped.

Activities

The Dutch Shepherd is an active and versatile breed. They compete in dog agility, obedience, Rally obedience, flyball, dock jumping, disc dog, tracking, search and rescue, nosework, weight pulling, along with protection sports such as Schutzhund, French Ring, Belgian Ring, mondioring, PSA and others. In the Netherlands it is still employed as a herder and the instinct is still strong in the breed.

Internationally, the Dutch Shepherd is best known for use in law enforcement under the KNPV program. The Koninklijke Nederlandse Politiehond Vereniging (KNPV), or Royal Dutch Policedog Association, was founded 27 October 1907, as an organization to oversee and test dogs for their suitability for police work. Dutch Shepherds with KNPV titles are sought after candidates throughout the world for police and military use, as well as sport competitors and personal protection dogs. The KNPV began a dog registration program in 2014 for KNPV member dogs, making registration mandatory for all dogs born after 1 April 2013.

Dunker


Dunker-pet-dog breeds-pets

A Dunker, also known as the Norwegian Hound, is a medium-sized breed of dog from Norway. It was bred by Wilhelm Dunker to be a scenthound by crossing a Russian Harlequin Hound with dependable Norwegian scent hounds.

Appearance

The Dunker has a clean, noble, long head with parallel planes of the skull and muzzle, carried low and not wedge-shaped. Its skull is slightly domed with a defined stop and clean cheeks, the muzzle is long and square-cut with a straight and broad nasal bridge, and its teeth are evenly spaced with a scissors bite. The Dunker has a black nose with wide nostrils, round, large, and dark eyes, and low-set, wide, flat, ears that hang close to the head and to the middle of the muzzle.

The Dunker has a long neck with no throatiness, sloping shoulders, straight forelegs, a level topline, a straight and strong back with broad and muscular loins, and a slight tuck up in the chest. Its hindquarters are well-angulated, as are its stifle, and its thighs and hocks are broad. The feet are arched, well-knit, have firm pads and hair between the toes, and point straight ahead. The tail is set on level with the topline, strong at the root, tapering at the end, straight, carried in a slight upward curve, and reaches to the hock.

The Dunker's coat is straight, hard, dense, and not too short, with the most desirable colors being black or blue marbled with pale fawn and white markings. Less desirable are warm brown or predominant black reaching from the muzzle and beyond the hock joint, a black mask, and overmarked white, and more than fifty percent white color is a disqualification.

The Dunker weighs around 35–39 pounds (16–18 kg), and males are 19.5–21.5 inches (50–55 cm) at the withers, while females are 18.5–20.5 inches (47–52 cm).

Temperament

This is quite a friendly and relaxed breed. It will provide these traits only to owners who will offer lots of activity.

Health

Occasionally, cases of hip dysplasia can occur. Deafness is also a significant issue, with 75% of all dogs of this breed being unilaterally or bilaterally deaf.

Drever


Drever-pets-dog breeds-dogs

The Drever is a breed of dog, a short-legged scenthound from Sweden used for hunting deer and other game. The Drever is descended from the Westphalian Dachsbracke, a type of German hound called Bracke. The breed name Drever was chosen through a contest in 1947.

Appearance

The Drever's most noticeable characteristic are its long body and short legs, inherited from the Westphalian Dachsbracke, but as a working dog these features are not exaggerated. It has short fur, and is of any color with white markings (but not all white, which has been linked to deafness.) The breed has the typical drop (hanging) ears of a hound, and a long tail. The maximum height of a Drever is 38 cm (15 ins) at the withers, which is about 15 cm (approx. 6 ins) shorter than a long legged hunting hound with the same size body. The Westphalian Dachsbracke is about 2 cm (less than an inch) shorter than the Drever.

Hunting

Most breeds with similar physical traits are bred for a single purpose, but the Drever has been bred to hunt all sizes of game, both hares and roe deer, and is also used to hunt fox and red deer. The Drever has a lot of stamina, and has become a popular hunting hound for deer hunters in northern Norway, Sweden, and Finland (in Finland drevers are not allowed in deer hunting yet, but it is used for hare and fox hunting). Roe deer are nervous quarry, and the hounds which are used to hunt them must move slowly, especially in areas where heavy snow can be expected in late autumn. This is given as the reason for breeding of a dog with a medium-sized body but short legs.
The Drever in Sweden is usually kept as a hunting hound and is not usually found as a pet.

Health

Specific health problems or claims of extraordinary health have not been documented for this breed. According to the breed standard, the Drever should be alert and self-possessed, with an affable, even temperament, and should not be aggressive or shy.

English Setter

The English Setter is a medium-size breed of dog. It is part of the Setter family, which includes the red Irish Setters, Irish Red a...

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